*Job interview*

* Editor’s desk, Daily Sun*

* Are you here for the job interview?*

* I had a good reporter once*

*Haven’t seen him in weeks*

* You said take some time off Joe*

* A few days Sparks*

*Not a few weeks*

* What have you got for me?*

* Nothing yet*

* I’m on something*

*But it stalled*

* So you want your old job back?*

* Funny Joe*

* I’ll work on other leads for now*

*See if it breaks forward*

* Seriously, where have you been?*

* Working for the government*

* Top secret, need to know only*

*I could tell you, yada-yada*

* Ok don’t tell me*

*But get me some print*

*Something I can run*

* You know*

*Like a reporter does?*

* I’m on it boss*

*(Randall passes a handwritten note*

*Seriously Joe, I can’t say anything*

*right now*

*It’s all active)*

* Yeah yeah*

*(Joe winks at Randall)*

* Are you still here?*

* Why are you still here?*

*22001*

*Coordinates 2*

* Daniel’s lab - MIT*

* These are coordinate sets Phillip*

* Let me see?*

* Ignore the fifteen digit groupings*

* Write the four coordinate groups*

*As degrees minutes and seconds*

* Place the second set below the first*

*Like this*

* 55 30 00 64 52 48*

*124 30 00 244 52 48*

* Take the first DMS column*

* Add Degrees 55 + 124 = 179*

*Add Minutes 30 + 30 = 1 degree*

* Together they total 180 degrees*

* Take the second DMS column*

* Subtract Degrees 244 - 64 = 180*

*Minutes and seconds cancel*

*Because they’re the same*

* The difference is 180 degrees*

* The first column numbers*

*Never exceed 180 degrees*

* And they’re supplementary angles*

* One number in the second column*

*Always exceeds 180 degrees*

* They’re back azimuths*

* Try it with a different set*

* 86 41 02 51 26 02*

*93 18 58 231 26 02*

* Add degrees 86 + 93 = 179*

*Add minutes 41 + 18 = 59*

*Add seconds 2 + 58 = 1 minute*

* The total is always 180 degrees*

* Now subtract 231 - 51 = 180*

*Minutes and seconds cancel out*

* The difference is always 180*

* I see*

*(Phillip pauses to review the work)*

* Excellent work Tenison*

* Do you want to complete it*

*Or would you allow me to?*

* (Tenison pauses)*

* I’m not sure what you’re asking*

* What’s unique*

*About the complementary angles?*

* (Tenison’s mind races*

* Complementary angles?*

* Subtract supplementary from 90*

*To get complementary, yes!*

*Then they’re the same*

* No, one’s negative*

* They’re opposite*

* Yes, that’s it!)*

* Ok*

* Assuming supplementary angles*

*Extend south from the polar zenith*

* To extract the complimentary angles*

*You subtract each from 90 degrees*

*Converting them to north/south*

* They’ll be equal but opposite angles*

* Continue*

* Back azimuth plus opposite latitude*

*Makes the coordinates antipodal*

* They’re opposite points on Earth*

* Excellent again Tenison*

*Well done*

* We haven’t established Earth yet*

* But they are certainly*

*Opposite points on a sphere*

* Your comprehension is impressive*

*Where did you learn it?*

* Actually Phillip*

*I learned it from you*

*22002*

*Circles great and small*

*In a perfect sphere*

*an imaginary plane (a flat surface)*

*that cuts through*

*the exact center of the sphere*

*will split the sphere*

*into two equal halves*

*If you set the flat side*

*of one of these halves on a plane*

*and trace it’s outline*

*you will draw a circle*

*and that circle will be*

*the largest possible circle*

*that you can draw*

*from that half-sphere*

*The largest possible circle*

*is called a great circle*

*If you shave any amount*

*off the flat side of the half-sphere*

*and retrace it*

*you will draw a smaller circle*

*because it will no longer be*

*a half-sphere*

*A great circle of a sphere*

*must share its center*

*with the center of the sphere*

*A sphere may contain*

*an infinite number of great circles*

*in any orientation*

*Any circle on a sphere*

*that does not share its center*

*with the center of the sphere*

*is a small circle*

*A sphere may contain*

*an infinite number of small circles*

*in any orientation*

*If a straight line splits a circle*

*into two identical halves*

*the points where the line*

*crosses the circle*

*are opposite points of the circle*

*They are called*

*antipodal points of a circle*

*and they are 180 degrees apart*

*If a 90 degree angle*

*is placed at any point*

*on the edge of a circle*

*the points where its two sides*

*intersect with the circle*

*will be antipodal*

*a line drawn between the points*

*will split the circle*

*into two equal halves*

*Antipodal points on a sphere*

*are 180 degrees apart*

*on any great circle*

*that contains the points*

*If two or more great circles*

*share two points*

*the line through the points*

*is the common axis*

*or pole of those great circles*

*The north and south pole*

*of the Earth*

*are antipodal points*

*that share great circles*

*called meridians*

*Half of each meridian*

*passing from north to south pole*

*is called a geographic meridian*

*or a line of longitude*

*The great circle*

*perpendicular to the polar axis*

*that splits the northern hemisphere*

*from the southern hemisphere*

*is called the equatorial plane*

*or the equator*

*It's the only great circle*

*perpendicular to that axis*

*Small circles perpendicular to*

*and sharing their center with*

*the north-south axis*

*are called circles of latitude*

*or parallels because*

*they run parallel to the equator*

*and they are commonly identified*

*by their angular distance*

*north or south from the equator*

*Two final considerations*

*The Earth is not a perfect sphere*

*Its equatorial great circle is larger*

*than any of the meridians*

*The shortest distance*

*between any two points*

*on the surface of a sphere*

*is the great circle path*

*containing the two points*

*This is why flight paths*

*often cross over the Arctic*

*rather than following*

*parallels of the equator*

*22003*

*Editor’s cut 22003*

* Circles great and small is an*

*academic **glimpse into latitude **and*

* longitude **and more importantly*

*opposing force **vectors.*

* As will soon be clear*

*all of the data relates to complex*

*force **vectors and balance.*

*22003ec*

*Prime meridian*

*Zero longitude*

*the imaginary north-south line*

*we today call the prime meridian*

*was designated by*

*an international conference*

*held in Washington, D.C. in 1884*

*as the meridian*

*passing through the center*

*of the transit instrument*

*at the Observatory*

*of Greenwich in England*

*The observatory was moved*

*to Hailsham, East Sussex*

*during the 1950s*

*but the original site*

*was preserved as the location*

*for zero longitude*

*For years the zero longitude*

*was considered to run*

*through El Hierro island*

*the westernmost of the*

*Canary Islands*

*Nicknamed Isla Del Meridiano*

*It lies about 17°(degrees)*

*40’ (minutes) west of*

*the Greenwich meridian*

*El Hierro island spans*

*more than a quarter of a degree*

*from about 17.88°W to 18.16°W*

*and for a long time was considered*

*the end of the known world*

*by Europeans*

*While the Spaniards chose*

*El Hierro in their territories*

*the Portuguese chose*

*the Madeira Islands in theirs*

*Pedro Reinel*

*drew the first prime meridian*

*on a sailing chart in 1506*

*Madeira island spans*

*from 16.39°W to 17.16°W*

*the chart showed the meridian*

*off the west coast*

*perhaps a quarter degree*

*22004*

*I see China, Rothells*

* Haley?*

* It says eight and ten zeros*

*And then 8300*

* But it’s not 8300 Rothells*

*It’s China*

* You were right about the colors*

*And I can see format*

* But I can’t define it yet*

* Tell you what*

*Write the number down*

*So we can come back to it*

* It might help you remember*

* I already did Rothells*

*800000000008300*

* See?*

* Haley*

*How do you see China from that?*

* I just do*

* Bad things*

*Happened in China Rothells*

*22005*

*Plan meeting*

* MIT - Daniel’s lab*

*Phillip leads the discussion*

* Tenison has identified*

*A coordinates format*

* We believe the coordinates*

*To be Earth related*

* The coordinate system is unique*

*In that latitude is expressed*

*From 0 to 180 degrees*

*And longitude from 0 to 360*

* And like the color files*

*The numerical data files*

*Have preambles containing*

*A probable serial number*

*Located in the message header*

* It’s followed by these constants*

*000000 2975445 3153445*

*And this means something*

* We think*

*The constants could provide*

*A zero longitude reference*

*And two reference offsets*

* They fit DMS coordinate format*

*And exceed 180 degrees*

* So they aren’t latitudes*

* That is assuming*

*They’re actually coordinates*

* So our task people*

*Is to identify the zero reference*

* It’s key to solving our puzzle*

* Perhaps it’s Ortelius*

* Lydia?*

* Abraham Ortelius*

* He’s the man who created*

*The Theatrum Orbis Terrarum*

*The “Theatre of the World” atlas*

*Around the year 1570*

* Old maps in that day*

*Used 360 degrees for longitude*

*Instead of 180 east and west*

*He used the Ferro meridian*

*In the Canary Islands*

*I believe*

* That’s a good place to start*

* Anyone else have any ideas?*

* Haley’s got good insight Phillip*

* She sensed China*

*From some of our data*

* But how do we connect it?*

* Exactly Daniel*

*We need a search plan*

* And Tenison*

*We can’t work in the dark*

* We need online access*

* I can get anything else Phillip*

*But not online access*

* We’re in an operations blackout*

* We have to define our request*

*And pass it through the liaison*

* I will ask but don’t expect it*

*22006*

*Plan review*

* Phillip continues*

* Let’s talk about the coordinate sets*

*So everyone understands them*

* A set contains six groups*

*In a specific order*

* Groups one through three*

*Latitude longitude and 15 digits*

* Groups four through six*

*Latitude longitude and 15 digits*

* We don’t have enough information*

*On the 15 digits yet*

* So for now we’ll focus*

*On understanding the coordinates*

* Latitudes and longitudes*

*Are in DMS format*

* That’s degrees minutes and seconds*

*360 degrees in a circle*

*60 minutes in a degree*

*60 seconds in a minute*

* The latitudes are supplementary*

*They add up to 180 degrees*

* This makes it easy to identify sets*

* The longitudes are different*

* Subtract the smaller from the larger*

*And you get 180 degrees*

* Even easier than latitude because*

*The last five numbers are the same*

* You’ll see this all over*

*If you haven’t caught it already*

* Since we can’t go online*

* The first logical step*

*Is to check the standards*

*Using Greenwich and Ferro Island*

*For zero meridians*

* So we’ll send out some test sets*

* If they come back positive*

*They might explain*

*What the 15 digit groups mean*

* If they come back negative*

*We have a lot of work to do*

* We’ll copy sets into Excel by hand*

*For transport and manipulation*

*So we can sort in different ways*

* Excel is good for that*

* Copying by hand is tedious*

*Errors will kill us*

* So we work as teams for now*

* Tenison and I*

*Have prepared some assumptions*

*To narrow our search*

* We’ll limit the search*

*To the following data only*

* Latitudes from 80 to 100 degrees*

*These should represent the equator*

* Latitudes less than ten degrees*

*They should fall in the Arctic*

* Latitudes greater than 170 degrees*

*Should be in the Antarctic*

* Longitudes from 355 to 5 degrees*

*Will help us find the zero meridian*

* The first set of coordinates*

*Is antipodal to the second set*

* They’re opposite points on a sphere*

*We believe opposite points on Earth*

* To determine that*

*We’ve chosen the equator*

*For its unique pattern*

* If you follow the equator east*

*From New Guinea*

*Located at 135 degrees east*

*To the Galapagos Islands*

*Located at 92 degrees west*

*You travel about 8000 miles*

* That’s nautical miles*

*But more importantly*

*You span 133 degrees of ocean*

*Without finding much there*

*And that’s what we’ll look for*

*In the data*

* Most equatorial coordinates*

*Should fall within the 227 degrees*

*That includes South America*

*Africa and New Guinea*

* This should get us close*

*Within two degrees we hope*

*That’s about 120 nautical miles*

* Then we look for the latitudes*

*To hit something*

* If they do multiple points should*

*And we’ll have our zero longitude*

* Daniel and Haley Lydia and Liamsi*

*Look for these numbers in your files*

* Ten coordinate sets for each team*

* Tenison and I will prepare samples*

*22007*

*Haley do you have*

*The China number?*

* We need the whole set*

* Yes Rothells*

*I have it right here*

* Latitude1*

*553000*

*Longitude1*

*645248*

*15 digits1*

*117900000008443*

* Latitude2*

*1243000*

*Longitude2*

*2445248*

*China*

*800000000008300*

*(Haley smiles)*

* But it’s not in the search criteria*

* It’s ok*

*We’ll just turn in an extra set*

* Can I have a copy please?*

* This is your copy Rothells*

*I wrote it for you*

* That’s perfect thank you*

* You’re welcome*

*(Haley smiles)*

* (Daniel notices*

*Lydia’s smile and wink)*

*22008*

*We have to convert it*

* Ok Tenison here’s the plan*

*See what you think*

* Thirty coordinate sets each*

*In two sample groups*

* First group*

*Raw data for Greenwich mean*

* Second group*

*Raw plus 17 degrees 40 minutes*

*To cover the difference*

*Between Ferro and Greenwich*

* It’s a good plan Phillip*

* I also think it will raise questions*

*And add errors and attention*

* You’re right it should be decimal*

*And east-west by north-south*

* (Phillip sighs)*

*We have to convert it*

* What if we went online*

*In my math lab?*

* It would breach security*

* Nothing’s allowed to leave this lab*

*Except by liaison*

* That would be Don’s answer Phillip*

*Sorry*

* You don’t have secret orders*

*To kill us if this turns bad do you?*

* I really can’t say Phillip*

*(Tenison laughs)*

* Just kidding*

* I’m not that kind of specialist*

* Besides*

*Don has other people for that*

*22009*

*Coordinate test sets*

* Ok Tenison*

* For our thirty samples how about*

*Five north and five south latitudes*

*Plus five zero longitudes*

*That gives us fifteen*

* And fifteen more for the equator*

*That makes thirty samples*

* Start with raw data for Greenwich*

* Then we’ll copy the Greenwich set*

*Adjust it for Ferro Island*

*And we’re ready to go*

* Am I missing anything?*

* Phillip?*

* Yes Daniel?*

* Here’s our ten samples*

*Plus an extra one*

* It’s not on the search list*

*But can we check it please?*

* Yeah Daniel*

*Sure*

* Thirty-one now Tenison*

* It all sounds good Phillip*

* I’ve started the conversions*

*It won’t take long to finish*

* How long do you think*

*Until the results come back?*

* They’ll be back fast Phillip*

*A few hours*

* If we send them out today*

*They should be back by morning*

*22010*

*A moment Lydia?*

* Yes Danny?*

* What do you think of Haley?*

* Rothells?*

* Yes there’s that and*

*I’m feeling drawn to her*

* That’s legal Danny*

* She picked you right off*

*Definitely some fondness there*

* She seems laser focused on data*

*I can’t put my finger on it*

* There’s something else about her*

* And you’re not focused Danny?*

* Look, she challenged you*

*It ruffled your feathers a little*

*And you’re not used to that*

* So you’re intrigued*

*That’s natural*

* And she’s a bit of an odd duck*

*So you’re a pair of odd ducks*

* Keep this in mind Rothells*

*She’s just a girl and you’re just a boy*

* Do the math you’ll be alright*

*It’s ok to be attracted*

* Thanks Lydia*

* You’re welcome Danny*

*22011*