22 Job interview

Spin balance cover picture

Job interview


 Editor’s desk, Daily Sun


 Are you here for the job interview?


 I had a good reporter once

Haven’t seen him in weeks



 You said take some time off Joe



 A few days Sparks

Not a few weeks


 What have you got for me?



 Nothing yet


 I’m on something

But it stalled



 So you want your old job back?



 Funny Joe


 I’ll work on other leads for now

See if it breaks forward



 Seriously, where have you been?



 Working for the government


 Top secret, need to know only

I could tell you, yada-yada



 Ok don’t tell me

But get me some print

Something I can run


 You know

Like a reporter does?



 I’m on it boss

(Randall passes a handwritten note

Seriously Joe, I can’t say anything

right now

It’s all active)



 Yeah yeah


(Joe winks at Randall)


 Are you still here?


 Why are you still here?




Coordinates 2


 Daniel’s lab - MIT


 These are coordinate sets Phillip



 Let me see?



 Ignore the fifteen digit groupings


  Write the four coordinate groups

As degrees minutes and seconds


 Place the second set below the first

Like this


 55 30 00  64 52 48

124 30 00  244 52 48


 Take the first DMS column


 Add Degrees 55 + 124 = 179

Add Minutes 30 + 30 = 1 degree


 Together they total 180 degrees


 Take the second DMS column


 Subtract Degrees 244 - 64 = 180

Minutes and seconds cancel

Because they’re the same


 The difference is 180 degrees


 The first column numbers

Never exceed 180 degrees


 And they’re supplementary angles


 One number in the second column

Always exceeds 180 degrees


 They’re back azimuths


 Try it with a different set


 86 41 02  51 26 02

93 18 58  231 26 02


 Add degrees 86 + 93 = 179

Add minutes 41 + 18 = 59

Add seconds 2 + 58 = 1 minute


 The total is always 180 degrees


 Now subtract 231 - 51 = 180

Minutes and seconds cancel out


 The difference is always 180



 I see

(Phillip pauses to review the work)


 Excellent work Tenison


 Do you want to complete it

Or would you allow me to?



 (Tenison pauses)


 I’m not sure what you’re asking



 What’s unique

About the complementary angles?



 (Tenison’s mind races


 Complementary angles?


 Subtract supplementary from 90


To get complementary, yes!


Then they’re the same


 No, one’s negative


 They’re opposite


 Yes, that’s it!)




 Assuming supplementary angles

Extend south from the polar zenith


 To extract the complimentary angles

You subtract each from 90 degrees

Converting them to north/south


 They’ll be equal but opposite angles






 Back azimuth plus opposite latitude

Makes the coordinates antipodal


 They’re opposite points on Earth



 Excellent again Tenison

Well done


 We haven’t established Earth yet


 But they are certainly

Opposite points on a sphere


 Your comprehension is impressive

Where did you learn it?



 Actually Phillip

I learned it from you




Circles great and small


In a perfect sphere

an imaginary plane (a flat surface)

that cuts through

the exact center of the sphere

will split the sphere

into two equal halves


If you set the flat side

of one of these halves on a plane

and trace it’s outline

you will draw a circle

and that circle will be

the largest possible circle

that you can draw

from that half-sphere


The largest possible circle

is called a great circle


If you shave any amount

off the flat side of the half-sphere

and retrace it

you will draw a smaller circle

because it will no longer be

a half-sphere


A great circle of a sphere

must share its center

with the center of the sphere


A sphere may contain

an infinite number of great circles

in any orientation


Any circle on a sphere

that does not share its center

with the center of the sphere

is a small circle


A sphere may contain

an infinite number of small circles

in any orientation


If a straight line splits a circle

into two identical halves

the points where the line

crosses the circle

are opposite points of the circle


They are called

antipodal points of a circle

and they are 180 degrees apart

If a 90 degree angle

is placed at any point

on the edge of a circle

the points where its two sides

intersect with the circle

will be antipodal

a line drawn between the points

will split the circle

into two equal halves


Antipodal points on a sphere

are 180 degrees apart

on any great circle

that contains the points


If two or more great circles

share two points

the line through the points

is the common axis

or pole of those great circles


The north and south pole

of the Earth

are antipodal points

that share great circles

called meridians


Half of each meridian

passing from north to south pole

is called a geographic meridian

or a line of longitude


The great circle

perpendicular to the polar axis

that splits the northern hemisphere

from the southern hemisphere

is called the equatorial plane

or the equator


It's the only great circle

perpendicular to that axis


Small circles perpendicular to

and sharing their center with

the north-south axis

are called circles of latitude

or parallels because

they run parallel to the equator

and they are commonly identified

by their angular distance

north or south from the equator


Two final considerations


The Earth is not a perfect sphere


Its equatorial great circle is larger

than any of the meridians


The shortest distance

between any two points

on the surface of a sphere

is the great circle path

containing the two points


This is why flight paths

often cross over the Arctic

rather than following

parallels of the equator




Editor’s cut 22003


 Circles great and small is an

academic glimpse into latitude and

longitude and more importantly

opposing force vectors.


 As will soon be clear

all of the data relates to complex

force vectors and balance.




Prime meridian


Zero longitude

the imaginary north-south line

we today call the prime meridian

was designated by

an international conference

held in Washington, D.C. in 1884

as the meridian

passing through the center

of the transit instrument

at the Observatory

of Greenwich in England


The observatory was moved

to Hailsham, East Sussex

during the 1950s

but the original site

was preserved as the location

for zero longitude


For years the zero longitude

was considered to run

through El Hierro island

the westernmost of the

Canary Islands


Nicknamed Isla Del Meridiano

It lies about 17°(degrees)

40’ (minutes) west of

the Greenwich meridian


El Hierro island spans

more than a quarter of a degree

from about 17.88°W to 18.16°W

and for a long time was considered

the end of the known world

by Europeans


While the Spaniards chose

El Hierro in their territories

the Portuguese chose

the Madeira Islands in theirs


Pedro Reinel

drew the first prime meridian

on a sailing chart in 1506


Madeira island spans

from 16.39°W to 17.16°W

the chart showed the meridian

off the west coast

perhaps a quarter degree




I see China, Rothells





 It says eight and ten zeros

And then 8300


 But it’s not 8300 Rothells

It’s China



 You were right about the colors

And I can see format


 But I can’t define it yet


 Tell you what

Write the number down

So we can come back to it


 It might help you remember



 I already did Rothells







How do you see China from that?



 I just do


 Bad things

Happened in China Rothells




Plan meeting


 MIT - Daniel’s lab


Phillip leads the discussion


 Tenison has identified

A coordinates format


 We believe the coordinates

To be Earth related


 The coordinate system is unique

In that latitude is expressed

From 0 to 180 degrees

And longitude from 0 to 360


 And like the color files

The numerical data files

Have preambles containing

A probable serial number

Located in the message header


 It’s followed by these constants

000000 2975445 3153445

And this means something


 We think

The constants could provide

A zero longitude reference

And two reference offsets


 They fit DMS coordinate format

And exceed 180 degrees


 So they aren’t latitudes


 That is assuming

They’re actually coordinates


 So our task people

Is to identify the zero reference


 It’s key to solving our puzzle



 Perhaps it’s Ortelius






 Abraham Ortelius


 He’s the man who created

The Theatrum Orbis Terrarum

The “Theatre of the World” atlas

Around the year 1570


 Old maps in that day

Used 360 degrees for longitude

Instead of 180 east and west

He used the Ferro meridian

In the Canary Islands

I believe



 That’s a good place to start


 Anyone else have any ideas?



 Haley’s got good insight Phillip


 She sensed China

From some of our data


 But how do we connect it?



 Exactly Daniel

We need a search plan


 And Tenison

We can’t work in the dark


 We need online access



 I can get anything else Phillip

But not online access


 We’re in an operations blackout


 We have to define our request

And pass it through the liaison


 I will ask but don’t expect it




Plan review


 Phillip continues


 Let’s talk about the coordinate sets

So everyone understands them


 A set contains six groups

In a specific order


 Groups one through three

Latitude longitude and 15 digits


 Groups four through six

Latitude longitude and 15 digits


 We don’t have enough information

On the 15 digits yet


 So for now we’ll focus

On understanding the coordinates


 Latitudes and longitudes

Are in DMS format


 That’s degrees minutes and seconds

360 degrees in a circle

60 minutes in a degree

60 seconds in a minute


 The latitudes are supplementary

They add up to 180 degrees


 This makes it easy to identify sets


 The longitudes are different


 Subtract the smaller from the larger

And you get 180 degrees


 Even easier than latitude because

The last five numbers are the same


 You’ll see this all over

If you haven’t caught it already


 Since we can’t go online


 The first logical step

Is to check the standards

Using Greenwich and Ferro Island

For zero meridians


 So we’ll send out some test sets


 If they come back positive

They might explain

What the 15 digit groups mean


 If they come back negative

We have a lot of work to do


 We’ll copy sets into Excel by hand

For transport and manipulation

So we can sort in different ways


 Excel is good for that


 Copying by hand is tedious

Errors will kill us


 So we work as teams for now


 Tenison and I

Have prepared some assumptions

To narrow our search


 We’ll limit the search

To the following data only


 Latitudes from 80 to 100 degrees

These should represent the equator


 Latitudes less than ten degrees

They should fall in the Arctic


 Latitudes greater than 170 degrees

Should be in the Antarctic


 Longitudes from 355 to 5 degrees

Will help us find the zero meridian


 The first set of coordinates

Is antipodal to the second set


 They’re opposite points on a sphere

We believe opposite points on Earth


 To determine that

We’ve chosen the equator

For its unique pattern


 If you follow the equator east

From New Guinea

Located at 135 degrees east

To the Galapagos Islands

Located at 92 degrees west

You travel about 8000 miles


 That’s nautical miles

But more importantly

You span 133 degrees of ocean

Without finding much there

And that’s what we’ll look for

In the data


 Most equatorial coordinates

Should fall within the 227 degrees

That includes South America

Africa and New Guinea


 This should get us close

Within two degrees we hope

That’s about 120 nautical miles


 Then we look for the latitudes

To hit something


 If they do multiple points should

And we’ll have our zero longitude


 Daniel and Haley Lydia and Liamsi

Look for these numbers in your files


 Ten coordinate sets for each team


 Tenison and I will prepare samples




Haley do you have

The China number?


 We need the whole set



 Yes Rothells

I have it right here






15 digits1









(Haley smiles)


 But it’s not in the search criteria



 It’s ok

We’ll just turn in an extra set


 Can I have a copy please?



 This is your copy Rothells

I wrote it for you



 That’s perfect thank you



 You’re welcome


(Haley smiles)



 (Daniel notices

Lydia’s smile and wink)




We have to convert it


 Ok Tenison here’s the plan

See what you think


 Thirty coordinate sets each

In two sample groups


 First group

Raw data for Greenwich mean


 Second group

Raw plus 17 degrees 40 minutes

To cover the difference

Between Ferro and Greenwich



 It’s a good plan Phillip


 I also think it will raise questions

And add errors and attention



 You’re right it should be decimal

And east-west by north-south


 (Phillip sighs)

We have to convert it


 What if we went online

In my math lab?



 It would breach security


 Nothing’s allowed to leave this lab

Except by liaison


 That would be Don’s answer Phillip




 You don’t have secret orders

To kill us if this turns bad do you?



 I really can’t say Phillip

(Tenison laughs)


 Just kidding


 I’m not that kind of specialist



Don has other people for that




Coordinate test sets


 Ok Tenison


 For our thirty samples how about

Five north and five south latitudes

Plus five zero longitudes

That gives us fifteen


 And fifteen more for the equator

That makes thirty samples


 Start with raw data for Greenwich


 Then we’ll copy the Greenwich set

Adjust it for Ferro Island

And we’re ready to go


 Am I missing anything?






 Yes Daniel?



 Here’s our ten samples

Plus an extra one


 It’s not on the search list

But can we check it please?



 Yeah Daniel



 Thirty-one now Tenison



 It all sounds good Phillip


 I’ve started the conversions

It won’t take long to finish



 How long do you think

Until the results come back?



 They’ll be back fast Phillip

A few hours


 If we send them out today

They should be back by morning




A moment Lydia?


 Yes Danny?



 What do you think of Haley?






 Yes there’s that and

I’m feeling drawn to her



 That’s legal Danny


 She picked you right off

Definitely some fondness there



 She seems laser focused on data

I can’t put my finger on it


 There’s something else about her



 And you’re not focused Danny?


 Look, she challenged you

It ruffled your feathers a little

And you’re not used to that


 So you’re intrigued

That’s natural


 And she’s a bit of an odd duck

So you’re a pair of odd ducks


 Keep this in mind Rothells

She’s just a girl and you’re just a boy


 Do the math you’ll be alright

It’s ok to be attracted



 Thanks Lydia



 You’re welcome Danny